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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    portions of the ramparts requiring the population to save themselves by scrambling to the roofs of habitations There is much ancient and modern documentation describing the flooded streets with the inhabitants circulating in boats There are several islands within the river that are perpetually modified by its swells as are its sand and gravel banks while marshlands called le Limas from latin limaceus muddy extend towards the ramparts Stones from the Rhône have also contributed to the appearance of the streets of the city because along with those from the Durance they were used as calades paving stones The osiers that grow in the alluvial waters have served for the weaving of banastes or baskets Commemorated in the name of the street rue Banasterie that leads from behind the Palais des Papes to the riverside The rhône s banks were extremely busy with three ports lining its quays The main port faced the bridge and the Porete Eyguière now the Rhône Upriver was the port for wood whose name La Ligne lives on in the quay and the gate Downriver at the Périers Port stones and construction materials of different kinds were unloaded Causeway jetties and breakwaters protected the wharves In the seventeenth century the wharves were refitted and adorned with sculptures Jean Péru s statue of Saint Bénezet was erected in front of the Porte de l Oulle It was accompanied by representations of other patron saints and protectors of the city Saint François near the bridge the Virgin a little ways upstream and Saint Agricol at the Porte du Rhône During the Middle Ages Arles became the conveyance point where merchandise was loaded from seagoing vessels to those that embarked along the rivers Craft were hauled upstream to Avignon Linked boats were towed by men and then by

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/histoire/rhoneen.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    of the city in 1251 the ramparts were again torn down The ancient gates remained until the eighteenth century Avignon s extraordinary transformation into the Capital of Christianity in the fourteenth century did not fail to register significant effects on its urban configuration The sudden growth in population and the sudden necessity of providing space for people to live and work led to the overflowing of its borders the walls of which where already suffering from their dismantlement in the middle of the thirteenth century Actual ramparts Admonitions against building on the fortifications were so frequent that infractions must be assumed to have been incessant Thanks to private initiatives new quarters developed near the monasteries and gates outside of the main walls However the calm prosperity of Avignon soon occasioned new threats Highwaymen destabilized the region and thus in c 1335 36 the authorities decided to erect a wall to protect the new agglomerations Work began during Innocent VI s pontificate in 1357 and lasted some ten years Motivated by immediate fears the first step consisted in the digging of a sort of moa t and the erection of a provisional wooden enclosure with gates The new enclosed space replaced with stone works in 1359 measured three and half times larger than the earlier city In 1366 these were some twelve concurrent work sites The new walls were partially financed with subsidies from the Apostolic Chamber and with loans by Innocent VI and Urban V but a wine tax of 1358 and a salt tax of 1363 provided the major portions Thus the citizens and the courtiers of Avignon financed their own defence An army was organized and arms and equipment were ordered from foreign states Fortification and artillery experts were recruited to Avignon And even though the fortifications were

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/histoire/rempartsen.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    to master registries of the Apostolic Treasury now within the secret archives of the Vatican in Rome Since the late nineteenth century access to this inestimable treasure house has greatly facilitated the writing of the history of this palace In the walls and part of the decoration remain it is more difficult form an idea of the ornemental furnishings or the kinds of activity that took place at this site It is also impossible to gauge how many members of the curia worked in the palace each day or lived there The only certainty is that activity was bustling Illustrious guests were received and handed keys to the comfortable chambers Elaborate religious ceremonies were conducted in the chapels Administrative work was accomplished in the myriad offices filled with busy notaries and scribes Calculations were made of accounting documents and tax receipts from throughout Christendom were calculated The palace fulfilled the multiple prerequistes of one of the greatest princes of is time serving at once as residence place of worship fortress and administrative city The ceremonial value of the palace was essential The sumptuous decor on its walls enhanced the magnificence and prestige of the pontiff s actions All the walls were covered with colored plaster geometrical paintings subtle or lavish imagery The main part of the extant decoration dates from Clement VI s command Working closely with his official painter Matteo Giovannetti his intention was to elaborate large ensembles bearing witness to the grandeur of the Church through their pomp depicting the links between Avignon and Rome Chapelle Saint Martial and Chapelle Saint Jean emphasizing the function of particulars halls Consistoire and Grande audiance or inciting a serene and cultivated enjoyment of nature Deer Room Emboldened by the pope s patronage and the distance of his masters a perfect master of fresco technique painting onto damp plaster Matteo Giovannetti elaborated a dazzling distinctive language where an innovative sense the virtuosity of tromp l oeil architecture and a feel for solemnity led him to compose remakable ensembles devoted to Saint John Saint Martial and to the prophets He did not work alone but was surrounded by his atelier Elsewhere in the palace French painters had already adorned the walls This was the case in the Pope s chambers where Benedict XII had the decoration imitate a pergola against a sky blue background Italian artists painted in graceful trefoil arched windows complete with stylized hanging bird cages Clement VI ordered a novel naturalist décor for his newappartments ist painters names remain unknown A forest and the multiple mode of hunting and fishing that are described in treatises are represented with great realism Despite irreparable loses over the centuries this panorama is a unique example of fourteenth century painted decoration This taste for color is also found in the green and brown tiles that are still visible in the stadium office of Benedict XII and reproduced in the rooms It was also evident in the green tapestries punctuated with red roses the many

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/palaisen.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    motivated the Confrérie de l Oeuvre and its founder Bénezet to initiate construction In addition to the bridge a church a cemetery and a hospice were established Bénezet was adept despite his humble origins at securing abundant donations as well as in organizing the new community of charitable laymen This group continued to exist after his death in 1184 to the ned of the fourteenth century religious services were assured by E glise Saint Agricol in 1321 the hopice whose buildings were destroyed in 1398 had been replaced by other one nearby still controlled by the Oeuvre du Pont that continued to function until 1796 The last stage of construction was the chapel with Bénezet s tomb above one of its piles During the siege of Avignon by the troops of Louis VIII 1226 the bridge was demolished to an extent and under circumstances that are not completely known A stone bridge with a higher roadway soon replaced the previous one and the Chapelle Saint Bénezet for the Confrérie des Nautoniers This chapel was enlarged in the sixteenth century The bridge itself exposed to violent course of the Rhône was constantly damaged then repaired or rebuilt at great expense at least until 1668 Since then its arches have successively disappeared In 1674 Saint Bénezet s remains were trans ferred to the Celestine monastery The relics that remained after the Revolution were transferred to Saint Didier church in 1854 The history of thje bridge has been more or less established and the legend of Saint Bénezet cannot be separated from it The legend came into being thanks to the Oeuvre du Pont s collection methods which included maintaining Bénezets remains on view In 1177 Bénezet a young sheperd from the Ardèche region was to have haerd voice of Christ instructing him

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/ponten.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    dichromatic composition It leads to the second floor formely living space which was altered by the construction of the Vernet gallery in 1833 The main wing presents a ground floor with five linked salons All the windows facing the garden have the original sculpted embrasures and two of them don gilt or painted stucs one with Chinese dragons the other the theme of music These rooms are currently being restored and while be viewable again in 2003 They benefit from excellent lighting thanks to the east west orientation of the wing which also shelters the garden from the fury of the mistral wind The wing itself is built over vaulted basements with kitchens and a stillfuctioning well The facade facing the garden is beautiful designed The second story has high windows with classical pediments and a rhythm of paired Ionic pilasters the ground floor a rhythm of Doric pilasters A simple balustrade conceals the Roman tile roof at once giving the ensemble a Palladian look and recalling Versailles On the other side the Méridienne is a rare example in Provence of stuc decoration c 1780 The theme is the Seasons and the profusion of symbols of peace lances entwined in olive branches birds sweetly pecking each other make for a fine relaxing atmosphere Restored in 2000 by the Monuments Historiques and the conservancy of the museum it is now integrated into the course of the visit The wing at the end of the garden was constructed in the nineteenth century The museum s extensive archeological collection will be on view there starting in 2003 To the north the Hôtel de Villeneuve Martignan comes up against another eighteenth century hôtel the Montlaur where prehistoric and iron work collections donated by Noël Biret will offering a view onto the northern court and occupying the former service area was designed by the architect Philippe Dubois The museum and the hôtel that accommodates it have also been known for the peacoks living in the gardens The birds will return when restoration work is completed probably in 2003 04 They are currently in the gardens of the Rocher des Doms The Museum s Collections The extensive prehistoric collection mainly concerns the Vaucluse region Covering Neolithic to the twentieth century periods the Musée de Calvet a direct descendat of an Early Modern curiosity cabinet contains the major repository of items relating to Avignon s past and is one of France s finest museums It also maintains the special status of a municipal museum administered by the Foundation Calvet an executive holdings Esprit Calvet devised this system in 1810 it continues to acquire works of art and to edit specilized publications The museum was administered under the municipal library until 1984 Reorganizing the two into separate institutions enables uniting and exhibiting the collections at one site the Hôtel de Villeneuve Martignan Until completion of renovations in 2003 only the painting sculpture and objets d art collections are on view The museum also presents temporary exhibitions relating to

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/calveten.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    meter funerary monument that Cardinal Jean de la Grange Bishop of Amiens had built at the Eglise Saint Martial Avignon c 1388 can be seen in the old chapel Its sculptural arrangement was destroyed during the Revolution but a seventeenth century drawing indicates the disposition Representations of the recumbent figure in alabaster now very mutilated and the nude decomposing cadavre or transi were located at the base This transi is one of the earliest examples of the macabre genre current in Northern Europee at the end of the Middle Age The already fleshless cadaver is striking for its realism and anatomical detail Five sculpted groups were developed along the vertical axis of the tomb Salle 3 The Italian painting collections begin here The museum s decision to present a chronological and geographical progression succeeds in demonstrating the extraordinary evolution of Italian painting between the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries The Byzantine influence of thirteenth century painters is still evident as the fragment from the Crucifix workshop of the Berlinghieri and the Last Supper workshop of the Master of the Madeleine clearly attest Altars were bestowed with altarpieces or large panels such as the Majcstic Virgin 1310 In the fourteenth century smaller format were also produced note the Florentine triptych of Puccio di Simone Simone Martini s d 1344 in Avignon four tondi depicting the prophets was part of the altarpiece that the artist painted for Orvieto c 1320 The refined deftness of Venetian painting iss perfectly illustrated by the Virgin and Child c 1340 of Paolo Veneziano official painter of His Supreme Highness Salle 4 The Siennese school long remained faithful to its origins Bartolo di Fredi and Taddeo di Bartolo left works demonstrating a great richness of ornementation fabrics gold point and emphatic drawing technique that favors the arabesque Salle 5 While continuing to refer to Giotto Florentine painters began to introduce a refined linear gothic style An example is the beautiful triptych by the Master of Santa Verdiana commisssioned for the main altar of the hospital founded in Florence by Bonifacio Lupi in 1386 and dedicated to Saint John the Baptist Salle 6 Between 1380 and 1450 the international Gothic style spread throughout Europe Also known as the art courtois it is characterized by a taste for description of court life Gothic arabesques and ornemental refinement The Angel and the Virgin of the Annunciation of Gherardo Starnina are fine examples of this tendency as is the Altarpiece of Saint Laurence Lorenzo Monaco 1406 Salles 7 8 The tableaux exhibited here illustrate the diverse aspects of the style in Bologna and the Marches At the far end of the gallery towards the cloister there are panels from the Siennese school by Sano di Pietro and Giovanni di Paaolo Small and charmings panels by the Master of Leccetto come from marriage chests and depict the stories of Dido and Lucretia and Collatinus Salle 9 This hall looks on to the Rhône and concerns the

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/petipalen.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    Requien s Loiseleur Deslongchamps and Jean Henri Fabre s herbaria Bulot s series of mid Cretaceous ammonites Pélissier s carabids and the brown bear fossils from Mont Ventoux A Renowned Scientist Esprit Requien 1788 1852 Esprit Requien a devoted botanist from an early age whose herbarium rapidly gained and international reputation As a forerunner of phytosociology he described the levels of vegetation of Mount Ventoux His eclecticism extended more or less into all branches of science The great savants of his day paid him homage by naming species after him and himself discovered of several genera Besides his scientific pursuits he was the inspector of historical monuments In this capacity along with his friend Prosper Mérimée he opposed the plans to demolish Avignon s ramparts which are today one of the highlights of the papal city The Museum The Musée Requien maintains two permanent exhibitions Plongée dans le temps Submerged in time and Faune vauclusienne The Fauna of the Vaucluse From gypsum crystal to a giant white shark delicate starfish to fish imprinted on stone Plongée dans le temps bears witness to the evolution of paleo and bio diversity before the advent of human influence on the environment Faune vauclusienne

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/requienen.php (2015-11-09)
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  • Bienvenue à la mairie d'Avignon
    of the nineteenth century the transformation of the school into a barracks and the chapel into kitchens a laundry and a canteen brought about the destruction of the choir the complete loss of the altar and the partial destruction of Péru s glory In 1851 when it became a church again important work was done on the choir an altar and a communion table were installed and Péru s glory was restored At the same time dark oak woodwork was applied to the walls concealing the pilaster bases and mitigating some of the force of the original layout In addition the beautiful gold adorned wood altar embelishing the large tribune at the entrance to the nave is not original to this structure it comes from another chapel in the Vaucluse Le Thor In the first two decades of the twentieth century the chapel experienced many vicissitudes for example it served as an exhibition space for an airplane during a beekeepers fair The decision to intall the Musée lapidaire within its walls is a fine break from the bizarre and often inappropriate uses to which this noble building has been put The Archeological Gallery Since 1933 the chapel of the Collège des Jésuites has displayed archeological pieces from the Musée Calvet At first reserved exclusively for Gallo Roman and Miedeval sculpture the building now presents an inspired and diverse selection of Egyptian Etruscan Greek and Roman works At the center of the building on the right side of the nave a selection of Egyptian works a tomb wall funerary steles offering tables honorific and votive statues as well as objects relating to the cult of the dead Canopic jars ushabti boxes and ushabti perfume and galene bottles furniture amulets miniature bronzes The most exceptional piece is a basalt vizier s head dating from the Middle Empire This portrait of the Pharaoh s highest administrator was originally part of Esprit Calvet s 1728 1810 cabinet of curiosities The display tables along the left present Greek vases illustrating the diversity of productions Attic Corinthian Italiot techniques black figure red figure and functions wine vases krater kylix skyphos transport vessels amphora pelike hydria cosmetic receptacles pyxis albastron Certain large vases such as the Apulian Baltimore barrel amphora were specifically fabricated to accompany entombment Greek terracottas complete the exhibition devoted to Hellenic civilization of the classical period There are several tables featuring representative displays from the Gallo Roman collection These include bronze statuettes and dishware terracotta lamps objects of glass bone ivory and molten glass and gold jewelry Many of these items were unearthed in the Vaucluse Vaison Apt Orange during the nineteenth century by the Calvet Foundation Most of the objects such as interfitting pyxes and gold rings come from burial sites Among the bronze objects some are important artifacts from daily life note the triple burner lamps part of the Apt Treasure and the chest lock from Vaison la Romaine Others derive from the Gallo Roman pantheon and demonstrate the virtuosity of bronze

    Original URL path: http://www.avignon.fr/en/musees/lapidaireen.php (2015-11-09)
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