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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    allusions genres and moods from the expressive Italian adagio to the French overture in the Versailles style and from the theme of a popular song to the most academic canon and counterpoint sometimes one on top of the other The power and vast scale of the work therefore contrast with its very simple principle Using an air of disconcerting structural simplicity Bach illustrates Goethe s dictum that every constraint contains the promise of a new freedom Although little is known about the personality of Johann Sebastian Bach our most reliable source here his actual music shows us that he was disciplined determined imbued with a strongly systematic and logical turn of mind but at the same time displayed enormous inventiveness and freedom of spirit Finally Bach s music is never completely secular there is always a clear religious dimension Read on this level the Variations are simultaneously a meditation on the one and the many reminiscent of meditating on the mystery of the Trinity an exploration of the depth and hidden richness of a base material similar to meditation on a scriptural text and finally to turn to an image widespread in German Baroque poetry a journey by the soul on the stormy seas of fleeting passions moods and desires before returning to port represented by the tranquil final repetition of the aria from which we started So since they do not have a proper title could we not depart from common usage and call them the Goldberg meditations Bach Goldberg Variationen Clavier Ubung bestehend in einer ARIA mit verschiedenen Veraenderungen vors Clavicimbal mit 2 Manualen Goldberg Variationen BWV 988 Der vierte Teil der Clavierübung 1742 herausgegeben und unter dem Titel Goldberg Variationen bekannt ist ebenso wie die Kunst der Fuge oder die beiden Teile des Wohltemperierten Klaviers einer jener riesigen Werke Zyklen Bachs die er mit seinem Sinn für Systematik und seinen geballten schöpferischen Kräften konzipierte Nicht nur wird in diesem Werk das Intime mit Virtuosität kombiniert sondern es befinden sich auch Konzeption und Anlage auf derart hohem Niveau wie es nur selten erreicht wird Der Legende zufolge soll der russische Gesandte am Dresdener Hof Graf von Keyserlingk Bach damit beauftragt haben Variationen für Cembalo zu komponieren die Johann Gottlieb Goldberg ein junger Cembalist der in seinem Dienste stand und gleichzeitig ein Schüler Bachs war in einer Kammer neben dem Schlafzimmer des Grafen spielen sollte wenn dieser nicht schlafen konnte Es ist unklar wie viel Wahrheit in dieser Geschichte steckt selbst wenn das Element der Schlaflosigkeit im Zusammenhang mit den Variationen durchaus ernstzunehmen ist Ihre Entstehungsgeschichte hat jedoch eher politische Beweggründe Bach hatte bereits vor 1736 mit der Arbeit an dem Werk begonnen dies war zu einer Zeit als er sich um die Stelle des Hofcompositeurs in Dresden bemühte Noch im selben Jahr wurde ihm der Titel mit der Hilfe seines Fürsprechers Keyserlingk zuerkannt Die Variationen die dem Gesandten sechs Jahre später überreicht wurden drückten Bachs Dank aus und zollten gleichzeitig dem Kurfürsten Tribut einer ganzen Reihe von Variationen

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/bach-goldberg-variations (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    flat major Opus 19 Concerto for Piano Orchestra N 4 in G major Opus 58 Concerto for Piano Orchestra N 1 in C major Op 15 Concerto for Piano Orchestra N 5 in E flat major Op 73 The Emperor Piano Concerto N 3 in C minor Op 37 Concerto for Violin Violoncello Piano Triple concerto Op 56 Liner Notes Liner notes can be found on the web pages of

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/beethoven-complete-piano-concertos (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    for him but heaven help me that was easier said than done I saw almost nothing but empty pages at the most on one page or the other a few Egyptian hieroglyphs wholly unintelligible to me were scribbled down to serve as clues for him for he played nearly all of the solo part from memory since as was so often the case he had not had time to put it all down on paper He gave me a secret glance whenever he was at the end of one of the invisible passages and my scarcely concealed anxiety not to miss the decisive moment amused him greatly and he laughed heartily at the jovial supper we ate afterwards How interesting it would be to know exactly how this process worked whether everything was clear in Beethoven s mind or whether there was an element of spontaneity Concerto for Violin Violoncello and Piano Triple concerto Op 56 Allegro Largo Rondo alla Polacca The so called Triple Concerto is perhaps best thought of as a concerto for Piano Trio and orchestra Infrequently programmed to this day the pleasures of the piece are perhaps an acquired taste where persistence brings rewards One critical viewpoint on the work maintains that it is flawed precisely because of its unusual layout which demands that all three players have to have their turn at playing the various themes presented thus attenuating the form of the piece to the point where it loses its concision Another more fruitful view might be to relate it to the composer s particular colouristic interests at this point in his career Here surely lies the charm of this piece Rather than falling apart Beethoven s form takes its time to unravel and the listener may delight in material repeated bathed in a new light as it passes through an ever changing kaleidoscope of textures This piece dates from what we might call one stage on in Beethoven s middle period It is contemporary with the Rasumovsky Quartets the piano sonatas op 53 54 and 57 the Eroica and the Fourth Symphony Beethoven also began work on Fidelio at this time Beside such durable masterpieces the Triple Concerto seemed something of a poor relation from the outset Contemporary accounts of the first performance in 1808 suggest that it was ill prepared and Beethoven s biographer Anton Schindler remarks that the piece was greeted without applause A suggestion that it may have been composed for a private performance at the palace of the Archduke Rudolph must remain speculative credible though it is that this concertante combination of forces may have resulted from the suggestion of a private patron such as this Archduke a favourite pupil of Beethoven The first movement grows from a cello motive quiet and low at the outset and rising in sequences A second theme on the violins is curiously linked to this opening material sharing its opening rhythm After this comes a tune which inevitably reminds the listener of yodelling

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/beethoven-triple-piano-concerto-n-3 (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    to have been around in London at much the same time and there are also French editions one of which titles one of the sonatas an Allemande The term Essercizi might best be seen as a forerunner of the Etude or Study for on one level the term is the precise equivalent of the German term Clavier Übung used among others by Bach It has even been suggested that there is a relationship between the thirty pieces in this collection and the thirty Goldberg variations a tribute on the part of Bach to this composer who alternated the scholarly with the madcap Charles Burney made a most penetrating comment on Scarlatti admiring in his playing a wonderful hand as well as fecundity of invention The remark nicely sums up the nature of the Essercizi pieces which strive to train players to possess his wonderful hand by confronting them with particular technical challenges while at the same time writing music which is packed with inventive ideas In essence this dual purpose agenda was endorsed by Scarlatti s note to the reader Whether you be music lover or teacher do not expect in these compositions any profound intention but rather an ingenious jesting with Art to set you on the path to mastery of the harpsichord Neither personal interest nor ambition has caused me to publish them more is it a case of obedience Perhaps they will be agreeable to you and then more willingly will I obey further commands to produce pieces in an easier and more varied style Thus so your humanity rather than criticism and thus increase your enjoyment To indicate the correct disposition of the hands note that D indicates the right hand and M the left Have a nice life Lettore Non aspettarti o Dilettante o Professor che tu sia in questi Componimenti il profondo Intendimento ma bensi lo scherzo ingegnoso dell Arte per addrestrarti alla Franchezza sul Gravicembalo Nè Viste d Interesse nè Mire d Ambizione ma Ubidienza mossemi a publicarti Forse ti saranno aggradevoli e più volentieri allora ubidirò ad altri Comandi di compiacerti in più facile e variato stile Mostrati dunque più umano che critico e sì accrescerai le proprie Dillettazioni Per accennarti la disposizione delle mani avvisoti che della D vien indicata la Dritta e dalla M la Manca Vivi felice Some of the pieces challenge the player with particularly tricky techniques three D major sonatas in particular demand a virtuosic crossing of the hands nos 21 24 and 29 No 6 works rapid scales of triplets no 8 expressive dotted notes and the final sonata at some time dubbed the Cat s Fugue demands a Bachian fugal technique But apart from these more obvious studies based on particular difficulties many of the others simply train the hand in all manner of figurations ranging from the scalic through zig zag semiquavers to awkwardly leaping figurations which flex and stretch the hand No 25 is such an example A particular preoccupation which Scarlatti persisted

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/scarlatti-essercizi-per-gravicembalo (2015-10-11)
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    was a great advocate of Schubert and introduced his works in Paris within a year of the composer s death in 1828 Liszt s first transcriptions of Schubert were made in 1833 when he was in his early twenties and he turned his attentions to further Schubert arrangements until the late 1840s The two arrangements in this recital both date from 1838 9 If Schubert was a major literary obsession the works of two Italian poets Dante and Petrarch were equally strong literary passions A good deal of rose coloured fantasy surrounds Liszt s stay in Italy with Marie d Agoult and early biographies romanticise the couple s readings of Dante and have Liszt composing the so called Dante Sonata at Bellagio in 1837 beside an early nineteenth century statue of the poet leading Beatrice into Paradise In fact it was not begun until two years after this sojourn What is clear is that it particularly consumed Liszt who would not venture out during its composition The piece closely follows several cantos of Dante s Divine Comedy Inhabiting the key of D minor a traditional key for pieces associated with death and the key of Liszt s Totentanz the piece begins with a dramatic series of tritones to conjure up hell As Alan Walker has pointed out a revealing copy of the work in the possession of Liszt s pupil Walter Bache has pencilled annotations linking the tumultuous first subject of the piece to Canto 3 of the Inferno There sighs and moans and loud bewailing woe Resounded through the dim and starless haze The which constrain d at first my tears to flow Discordant tongues speeches of horrid phrase Words of distress accents of anger sore Shrill and hoarse voices sound of hand with these An uproar made which gather d more and more In that eternally dark tinted air Like to the sand when whirlwinds sweep the shore A descending octave passage is linked to canto 34 The banners of the Emperor of Hell Come streaming towards us therefore onward gaze My Master said that thou discern Him well As when the vapour breathes with thickening haze Or when the night embrowns our hemisphere Its moving vans a mill from far displays So now in front a structure gan appear Then sprang I to escape the whirlwind strong Behind my Chief none other screeen was near When in our progress we had reach d so far That thence it pleas d my Master me to show The creature once in Heaven surpassing fair In contrast to the D minor depiction of the satanic is the beatific vision which takes over as the fires of hell are extinguished A lyrical melody sings out in the key of F sharp major for Liszt a paradise key In fact Liszt has gone back to his model of the Wanderer for the melody is a thematic transformation of the earlier demonic motive now turned major A further literary source is also connected

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/voyage-liszt-schubert-wagner (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    in the texture during the exposition of the first subject but a second subject enters in the key of E flat major in technical ter ms the flat submediant Moreover Beethoven learnt from Mozart that the best concertos even if they explore remote keys must above all have a clear structure and avoid wandering harmonies that confuse the listener Thus this key of E flat becomes a structural point of reference returned to several times in the movement At this juncture it is prepared for by a bar of oscillation which then becomes the accompaniment heard on the G string of the second violins The same theme is then heard up a tone in F minor the modulation being effected by a very Mozartian sequential passage with a clearly heard dialogue of a falling scale between the oboe and the bassoon A particularly witty touch here is that the quick rising scales which gave an affirmative feel to the march like first theme are now transferred to the minor and are quietly heard as a distant strand in the orchestral texture used for the second subject Ideas are very much focused on the right hand of the pianist nicely balanced in terms of phrase length it veers between virtuosity and cheek arpeggios and acciaccature The second subject is introduced in the conventional key and the section ends with an unexpected affirmative cadence on the point of reference we have already identified E flat major After this quite an extraordinary thing happens the piano plays four notes in the right hand against six in the left a static passage which seems to foreshadow a similar texture in the Emperor the similarity heightened because the passage is in the same key as that concerto Was it perhaps that when he came to compose the fifth Beethoven felt not only that he could tie the concertos together but that he had not fully exploited this idea in the first concerto Whatever the case the similarity is clearly audible The recapitulation rescores and develops the first subject to include the piano which delights in notes Mozart did not have for instrument technology had expanded not only the range of concert pianos at both upper and lower ends but also their power Among the many sketches for the first two concertos are several for cadenzas for the C major concerto These were no doubt sketches made by Beethoven as prompts for his own performances rather than the beginnings of written out cadenzas The tradition was to improvise the various cadenzas were the soloist s spot and other pianists were also in the habit of leaving the cadenzas to spontaneous or part spontaneous inspiration Beethoven s published cadenzas for those who preferred notated security retain the spirit of improvisation and give us some idea of the performance practice of the day Beethoven bequeathed us three written cadenzas dating from 1809 of which the present recording uses the shortest The exploitation of mediants keys related by a

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/beethoven-piano-concertos-nos-1-5 (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    career as a touring virtuoso only the Preludio was initially published and performed At that point he was evidently dissatisfied with the Gavotte and Gigue and the suite as a whole was not finally published until 1941 Long before the period of exile imposed by the explosive political events in Russia of 1917 Rachmaninov had been the rising star of Moscow s musical circles and his Six Moments musicaux pour Piano op 16 date from those early days They were in fact composed in 1896 whilst awaiting the premiere of his first symphony and can thus be seen to belong to his early period as a composer so dramatically brought to a close by the symphony s abject failure at its first performance The impact of this event has been well documented but there remains some dispute as to its ultimate aesthetic effects It is sometimes claimed that Rachmaninov s most strikingly original qualities were irreversibly stunted by the trauma of his first symphony s failure a view seemingly endorsed by Rachmaninov himself according to his one time muse the Armenian poet Marietta Shaginian The Moments therefore in many respects represent the qualities associated with his earliest work in general and his first symphony in particular There are numerous passages of intense lyricism N s 1 5 and likewise of unbridled bombast and emphatic assertion N s 2 4 6 but with a tendency towards rather obsessive repetition N s 4 6 and diffuse form N s 1 3 The extravagant virtuosity and complex textures of his piano writing were nevertheless to persist in much of Rachmaninov s music until rather later in his career Rachmaninov s last transcription indeed his very last musical work was of Tchaikovsky s Lullaby no 1 of Six Songs op 16 The connection between the two great figures is a profound one certainly from Rachmaninov s point of view A hero to the younger generation of composers Tchaikovsky s influence and advice had been crucial to Rachmaninov in the early stages of his career Indeed Tchaikovsky had intended to champion the work of his younger colleague on a forthcoming European tour but was prevented by his untimely death an event which prompted Rachmaninov to write his Trio élégiaque op 9 dedicated to the memory of a great artist There is poignancy in the fact that Rachmaninov having attempted a reduction of the Manfred Symphony of his own accord as a 13 year old should receive as his very first commission in 1890 a request for a piano transcription of Tchaikovsky s Sleeping Beauty a rather unsuccessful venture and that his last efforts in 1941 should also be in the service of his mentor Despite his substantial output of songs Rachmaninov transcribed only two for piano solo Lilacs in its original form is no 5 of Twelve Songs op 21 and dates from 1902 well into the composer s creative re birth after the apathy and inactivity that followed his first symphony s disastrous premiere

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/rachmaninov-moments-musicaux (2015-10-11)
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  • Satirino records - Satirino
    a single harpsichord he also enriched his model adding here a new voice there new developments and a level of overall ornamentation lacking in the original re creations in the purest sense of the word This attitude was characteristic of him as can be seen in his adaptation of the first sonata in the collection making it his A minor sonata BWV 965 with its considerably amplified fugue and gigue compensating with density what the work lost in diversity of colour The Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue occupies a special place in Bach s works It is one of his most audacious compositions so much so that it has even been attributed to Wilhelm Friedemann The manuscript did in fact fall to the lot of the musician s eldest son who never sold it but kept it by him Did it have a particular significance for him As the work unfolds Bach does in fact appear to be in a state of shock in the grip of an intense emotion These violent shocks and rocketing lines in a dramatic recitative full of broken chords and tortured harmonies these crawling lines of chromatic movement all underline the emotional climate of the moment And such intensity such exaggerated chromatism is no mere display of virtuosity by a composer seeking to astonish his audience There is more to seek and a closer look shows that the Fantasy is in fact segmented according to the periods of a funeral oration as defined by the rules of rhetoric with which Jean Sébastien was so deeply imbued The outburst of the choral Ah how vain how fleeting is human life in the middle of this discourse confirms the hypothesis Everything leads one to believe that the work was composed in 1720 under the effect of the unexpected death of Maria Barbara the composer s first wife The Fantasy is indeed a rending lamentation after which the Fugue from a mysterious almost laborious start builds up a formidable weight and strength to forge obstinately towards the re conquest of self mastery in the face of pain The Italian Concerto and the French Overture are the two pieces with which Bach constructed his second book of harpsichord music We know that after moving to Leipzig from 1726 he began to publish works for the keyboard which were as he said himself intended for a public of enthusiasts and connoisseurs In the full flower of his human and professional maturity he wanted to make known his talent The first volume finished in 1731 consists of the six Partitas 1 Four years later there appeared a new collection entitled Second part of the Clavier Übung consisting of a Concerto in the Italian style and an Overture à la française for a harpsichord with two keyboards Composed for the recreation of amateurs by Johann Sebastian Bach Kapellmeister to the Prince of Saxe Weissenfels and Director of Music of the City of Leipzig Published by Christoph Weigel the Younger Bach had organised the

    Original URL path: http://www.satirino.fr/artist_records/bach-italian-concerto (2015-10-11)
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