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  • F2a: Support to PCCP | UnivEarthS
    research education and scientific exchanges in the field of cosmology or more generally the physics of the Universe It was created in February 2010 by George F Smoot when he was hired as professor of the University Paris Diderot and he saw the opportunity to create a large Parisian centre dedicated to cosmology Supported from the start by University Paris Diderot CNRS IN2P3 and the Paris Observatory PCCP aims at developing a synergy between the Parisian laboratories at present APC LPNHE LUTh GEPI LPTENS to enhance the contribution of the French community to the rapidly developing field of cosmology LabEx UnivEarthS contributes to the financing of some of the actions of PCCP such as the organization of workshops visitors and postdoctoral programs but also the training of high school teachers and the conception of a general public MOOC to share a scientific adventure on the frontiers of the knowledge 13 10 2014 Pierre Binétruy PR Paris Diderot George F Smoot Chaire d Excellence SPC Michel Spiro Conseiller Scientifique CEA Federico Piazza Postdoc CNRS Paris Diderot Andrea Tartari Postdoc LabEx F2 Chaire Excellence Mark Jackson Postdoc Paris Diderot Mauro Pieroni Ph D Student SPC fellowship Marie Verleure Project Manager Paris Diderot Teaching the Universe 2013 13 10 2014 Outreach Teaching the Universe 3 days annual workshop designed for high school teachers General Public Mooc Massive Open Online Course Gravity From Big Bang to black holes Scientific activities Workshops Conferences Financing Visitor program Fellowships CMB detection workshop Map of cosmology concepts 13 10 2014 See the PCCP web site pariscosmo fr 13 10 2014 Probing Massive Stars Around Gamma Ray Burst Progenitors Wenbin Lu Pawan Kumar George F Smoot Jan 29 2015 e Print arXiv 1501 07606 astro ph HE 21 cm Intensity Mapping with FAST George F Smoot Ivan Debono Jul

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/f2a-support-pccp (2015-10-10)
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  • F3 : The transient catastrophic Universe | UnivEarthS
    LOFAR Europe ASKAP Autralia and MeerKAT South Africa that are the precursor instruments of the major international SKA facility to be developed for the 2020 The synchrotron radio emission probes with unequalled angular resolution the cooling in the ambient magnetic field of the relativistic particles ejected by compact accretors or explosions It also constrains the kinetic feedback of such events on their environment Artistic view of a small part of the SKA kilometer array a decision regarding the selection of the SKA site is expected in the next months Algorithmic improvements for transient detection would yield improved use of the different combinations of fields of view and unprecedented sensitivities offered by these instruments The vast storage and computational requirements of transient searches in particular for imaging interferometers also requires the development of near real time detection pipelines The LOFAR project is engaged in the development of first generation pipelines The characterization of transients and their identification at other wavelengths represents another challenge LOFAR is a radio telescope currently being built in The Netherlands and neighboring countries Image from one of the Lofar low frequency station in Nançay France Astrophysics of high energy Stéphane Corbel Professeur des Universités AIM Isabelle Grenier Professeur des Universités AIM Jean Luc Starck Chercheur CEA AIM Page web Julien Girard Post doc LabEx UnivEarthS AIM Page web à venir Ming Jiang Doctorant CEA AIM Page web Hugh Garsden LEDA project Harvard Observatory ex post doc LabEx UnivEarthS Page web In collaboration with Cyril Tasse GEPI Observatoire de Paris and the LOFAR TKP MeerKAT ThunderKAT and ASKAP VAST collobarations Astrophysics of high energy Past results The efforts deployed by the members of the teams were focused on the development of a sparse imager for aperture synthesis imaging of data acquired with new generation of giant radiotelescope such as LOFAR and SKA The image reconstruction from simulated and real data has demonstrated the robustness of such imager as well as its capacity to produce super resolved images see the CEA news here The page associated with the development of the code is on the CosmoStat website here All details and results were published in A A Garsden et al 2015 check publication section Current developments The next step is the development of a 3D extension of the code enabling the robust temporal reconstruction of the data containing information about transient radio sources The latter are rather difficult to image correctly with the classical imaging method used in interferometry The third step is the developement of a multi channel imager which accounts for the frequency information of the data enabling not only the reconstruction of source flux but also to put constraint of their spectral behavior reconstructing spectral index information by applying a sparse component seperation technique These two steps constitutes the current work of Ming Jiang PhD student at AIM CEA Saclay and Julien Girard Post doc UnivEarthS These generic tools will be compatible with new generation radio interferometers especially LOFAR but the other SKA pathfinders and precursors

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/f3-transient-catastrophic-universe (2015-10-10)
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  • Interface projects | UnivEarthS
    living planet From the Big Bang to the future Universe Support au PCCP The transient catastrophic Universe Interface projects Geoparticles Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/interface-projects (2015-10-10)
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  • I2 : Geoparticles | UnivEarthS
    out by the APC group to predict the background to the Double Chooz experiment and independently by the IPGP group to predict the signal in muon telescopes A synergy of the two teams will lead to the development of the most accurate methods for the inverse tomography problem 2 An accurate modelling of reactor anti neutrino spectra can be obtained from the analysis of the data that will come from the Double Chooz experiment 2011 2016 This will improve the knowledge of geo neutrino backgrounds and thus the precision on current and future measurements In addition the APC group is involved in the Borexino experiment which has recently reinforced the evidence for geo neutrinos and will provide a more precise measurement in the near future Participating in this data analysis will be useful to gain experience on the topic 3 The results of current geo neutrino experiments are dominated by the thick continental crust However the importance of geo neutrinos lies in the possibility to probe the geochemistry of the mantle We propose two approaches to be studied jointly by IPGP and APC either detect geo neutrinos at specific locations or precisely subtract the contribution from the crust The option of a movable detector could be interesting in this regard 4 Future detectors for geo neutrinos demand R D on specific items We propose to construct a test bench to address some key topics In parallel with the R D on future large detectors a selection of the most promising sites for geosciences i e where to deploy these detectors has to be performed Astrophysics of high energy APC Luca Agostino PhD student Anatael Cabrera Physicist Jaime Dawson Physicist Davide Franco Physicist Didier Kryn Physicist Michel Obolensky Physicist Thomas Patzak Professor Alessandra Tonazzo Professor co PI Daniel Vignaud Researcher IPGP Dominique Gibert Physicist co PI Claude Jaupart Professor Kevin Jourde PhD student Nolwenn Lesparre Post doc Jacques Sibilla Engineer Astrophysics of high energy Muon telescopes for volcano tomography Previously built telescopes are being improved The time resolution of the electronics of the Guadeloupe telescope has been improved from 10ns to 1ns This improves the capability to flag particles in particular it is now possible to determine the flight direction and thus to remove a large fraction of the background The Guadeloupe telescope has also received a rotating base allowing for easier orientation of the instrument The MEMPHYNO R D test bench A tomography of the building has been performed with the muon hodoscope The first data with the electronics card for a 16 PMT matrix has been taken For details see the presentation and e Print arXiv 1306 6865 physics ins det The BOREXINO neutrino experiment The new geo neutrino analysis has been published e Print arXiv 1303 2571 hep ex he DOUBLE CHOOZ reactor neutrino experiment Measurement of anti neutrino directionality thesis in progress R Roncin Precise prediction of the reactor spectrum for the oscillation analysis http arxiv org abs 1207 6632 http arxiv org abs 1301 2948 Detailed

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i2-geoparticles (2015-10-10)
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  • I3 : Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space | UnivEarthS
    space Presentation Team Results experiences News Publications Through the space projects they have been or are pursuing IPGP and APC have acquired an expertise in precision measurements of distances times and acceleration in astrophysics fundamental physics in space Planetary surface Earth surface and ocean bottom as well as a leading role in France in the coordination of missions closely associated to these techniques e g French LISA office LISA France and the French Planetary seismometer selected onboard the NASA INSIGHT mission The techniques involved are necessarily associated with high technology and often extreme precision requiring unprecedented levels of noise control often in harsh conditions and measurements at very low frequency and space compliant instruments These techniques represent the path to the future and developing them will allow progress not only in the understanding of the most fundamental aspects of our environment whether it is the Earth solar system planets or the Universe at large but also in the technological prospects for forthcoming space missions They are indeed closely related with cutting edge knowledge and technologies such as nanotechnologies high precision distance measurements solid state physics etc The goal of this WP is to continue R D efforts in these domains in order to explore new technologies in acceleration measurements e g with optical or quantum devices including cold atoms high temperature superconducting squids and tunneling diodes in the displacement or gravity sensors head satellite satellite laser and radio ranging furthermore reduce mass and integrate control electronics e g with the development of Asics hybrids and highly integrated 3D packaging precisely understand the physics of extremely low thrust engine e g surface and chemical effects of ion sources used for micro newton thrusters and highly improve insulating structure and packaging by controlling thermal transfers at the nanoscale e g nano thermal

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i3-fundamental-physics-and-geophysics-space (2015-10-10)
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  • I6: From dust to planets | UnivEarthS
    from experimental high pressure equilibrium volatilization condensation irradiation adsorption diffusion samples A new platform of experimental cosmochemistry is under construction at IPGP that aims to simulate some key physical processes regarding gas dust interaction Our approach will be developed in 5 tasks What do the age and composition of CAIs and chondrules really tell us about the formation of the solar system How can we constrain irradiation processes in the early solar system from analyses of lunar soil grains and meteoritic chondrules and CAIs Why and how did the isotopic composition of major volatiles elements O N and C change so rapidly in the inner accretion disk What is the origin of highly volatile elements in parent bodies from laboratory simulations of gas dust interactions How and when did the first planetesimals form As disk observations and laboratory measurements will provide constrains on the transport of solids it will be necessary to provide scenarios of large scale transport relying on the physics of gaseous and dusty protoplanetary disks based on numerical simulations On this side AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos including turbulent dynamics radiative effects and planet disk interactions Simple chemical and isotopic fractionation models will be included into simulations of turbulent dust transport in order to test different scenarios to interpret isotopic data Three important modeling tasks will be lead Development of a dust transport model in the protoplanetary disk taking into account turbulence and dust condensation refractories near the Sun and volatiles near the snow line Coupling of the dust transport model with a radiative transfer code in order to create synthetic images to space observation of disks Development of a protoplanetary disk thermodynamical model in order to constrain the condition of formation of dust in order to compare with laboratory data Estimation of the irradiation flux of dust in the disk in order to calibrate experiments of fractionation of dust under irradiation Beside the earliest phases of planet formation N body simulations of embryo transport in the disk in the frame of the Nice model will be lead to constrain the radial origin of the building blocks that assembled into the modern terrestrial planets This will lead naturally to interactions with research theme 2 that concerns itself with the initial differentiation and interior structure of the terrestrial planets Differentiation interior structure and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets The processes that took place during the initial differentiation of the Earth are reasonable well understood the composition of the major chemical reservoirs crust mantle and core are relatively well known and the manner by which internal heat is lost to space via plate tectonics is understood from both observational of modeling perspectives For the other terrestrial planets however our understanding of these processes is considerably more limited and many first order questions remain unresolved For example What is the thickness and composition of the crust of Mercury the Moon and Mars At what depths do the major phase transitions occur in the mantles of Mars and Venus and how do these phase transitions affect mantle convection and plume dynamics What is the size of the metallic core of Mercury Mars and the Moon And what are the abundances of light alloying elements such as sulfur carbon and silicon in the liquid portion of their cores Do Mercury Mars and the Moon possess a solid inner core And is core crystallization the source of energy that is powering the dynamo generated magnetic field of Mercury today What was the energy source that powered the early dynamos of Mars and the Moon and why did their dynamos later shut off To address these and other question this project will rely upon a three pronged approach making use of geophysical data collected by planetary missions high pressure laboratory experiments and numerical and geophysical modeling Members of this research axe are currently involved in several NASA and ESA planetary missions at both the co investigator and principal investigator level including NASA s geophysical missions to the Moon GRAIL and Mars InSight and ESA s orbital missions to Mercury BepiColumbo and Jupiter JUICE Furthermore members of our project have recently finished the construction of a world class high pressure geo materials laboratory that is currently making its first measurements Together these datasets will offer us a unique perspective to unravel the above listed questions concerning the differentiation interior evolution and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets The first two years of the UnivEarthS I1 project funded our analyses of lunar gravitational data acquired during the primary mission of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory GRAIL mission Results from our group have shown that the crust of the Moon is significantly thinner than once thought that the crust has been highly fractured by billions of years of impact cratering and that lateral variations in crustal temperature have had a dramatic influence on the morphology of giant impact basins During this initial stage of analysis the UnivEarthS funded a LabEx postdoc and contributed to the publications of two articles in the journal Science We now have at our disposal gravitational data from the extended mission which has a spatial resolution that is two times better than that acquired during the primary mission Over the following three years we aim to study processes that were previously beyond reach such as the gravitational signature of magnetic anomalies and magmatic intrusions and the subsurface structure of medium sized simple and complex impact craters For these studies we ask that the UnivEarthS LabEx fund a post doc in additional to our initial demand three years ago At the time the initial UnivEarthS proposal was selected our group anticipated on providing a seismometer to the Japanese lunar geophysical mission SELENE 2 with a launch near 2018 Since this time NASA selected the Martian geophysical mission InSight which will be launched and land on Mars in 2016 Members of our research group are providing at the principal investigator level the sole instrument that is above the mission s science threshold This instrument is the very broad band seismometer that is being developed at IPGP and which will make the first seismic measurements ever on the surface of Mars Data from this mission will constrain the size of the martian core determine if a solid inner core exists determine the thickness of the crust and search for seismic discontinuities in the mantle among other objectives The UnivEarthS project previously agreed to fund a LabEx postdoc and a co financed thesis student for seismic analysis related to the SELENE 2 mission and these resources will be redirected towards the InSight mission in this revised project In addition to our initial demand we ask the UnivEarthS LabEx for an additional co financed thesis student to help with the flood of data that will arrive when InSight lands on Mars in 2016 The proposed experimental approach aims at combining astrophysical models of planetary accretion with geochemical models of planetary differentiation and cosmochemical constraints provided by meteorites During the first two years funded by the UnivEarthS LabEx the young research group JE1 developed protocols to use the laser heated diamond anvil cell for studying the geochemical imprint of planetary core formation We have shown notably in a recent publication in Science that the partitioning of slightly siderophile elements V and Cr during core formation imply that accretion of the Earth could have occurred under conditions that were more oxidizing than previously thought In this way Earth can accrete from materials as oxidized as the most common meteorites i e ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites and imply large mixing of proto planetary materials in the inner solar system Similarly Ni and Co partitioning shows clearly that the core cannot form at pressures lower than 35 GPa nor can it form at pressure higher than 65 GPa bracketing for the first time the depth of the terrestrial magma ocean in the first 50 million years after the birth of the Solar System The research we propose to develop over the next 5 years will help us constrain and understand the primordial differentiation of terrestrial bodies in the Solar System We plan to understand the early evolution of Vesta by combining high precision isotope geochemistry with experimental geochemistry through the study of isotopic fractionation of siderophile and volatile elements Si Cr Ga Cu Zn Sn as well as moderately siderophile elements W Mo One of the aims is to understand the accretion of the so called Late Veneer on small planetary embryos These studies can be applied to understanding the Earth Moon system after the giant impact through the comparison between Apollo samples and experimental charges once again with a special focus on volatile elements and their isotropic fractionation We have access to a very large collection of SNCs and have plans to propose refined models of Martian differentiation to understand the processes that can occur in a very short timescale and compare it with the relatively long timescale of terrestrial accretion These studies all require a savvy mix of experiments and cosmochemical observation and access to rare samples and represent a perfect integration of the experimentalists in this proposal with the cosmochemists Planetary interfaces atmosphere surface interior interactions The atmosphere of planetary body with no plate tectonics mainly forms and survives through the release of volatiles from the mantle or ice shell by volcanism or cryovolcanism and the persistence of surface reservoirs for those volatiles The presence and survival of an atmosphere provides in that way a window into the evolution of the volcanic activity the atmospheric dynamics and composition climate and the geology and geodynamics of a planetary body The aim of research theme 3 is thus to study the strong coupling between planetary bodies interiors surfaces and atmospheres constraining their concomitant formation and evolution throughout the age of the Solar System This axis combines the joint characterization of the solid and fluid envelops of terrestrial planets satellites and exoplanets following a complete comparative planetology approach with Mars Titan and exoplanets with an atmosphere as archetypes in a multi disciplinary way This project will include analysis of planetary mission data numerical simulations and laboratory experiments Atmosphere interior habitability coupling on Mars The INSIGHT mission planned to land on Mars in 2016 will provide the first constraints on martian mantle discontinuities and better constrain the thickness and composition of the crust composition Constraints on the mantle size if coupled with better constraints on the thermodynamical properties of the mantle phase transitions can be used for better modeling and understanding of early martian mantle dynamics mantle convection rates of crustal production and evolution in basaltic composition Furthermore constraints on the crust and mantle melt density can be used to estimate the amount of melt that is stored within or below the crust relative to the amount of melt that reaches the surface and hence releases its volatiles into the atmosphere With the new data provided by the INSIGHT mission we thus aim to constrain the coupled interior atmosphere co evolution of Mars and its impact on the primitive habitability of the planet For this project we ask for a co financed thesis student to help in the analysis of the data that will be provided by InSight INSIGHT will also provide the first coupled geophysical and meteorological observatory on Mars We expect the mission to detect the micro seismic noise generated by the interaction of wind with the surface This will be used to monitor and constraint the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and to constrainthe surface saltation processes Dune physics and the link with planetary climate During the last two years new collaborations have been established with the Chinese Academy of Science to develop a novel type of field experiment designed to examine the physics of sand dunes within their natural environment using controlled initial and boundary conditions This so called landscape scale experiment is a new and unique concept that is particularly well suited for validation and quantification purposes Given the extreme conditions encountered in arid deserts and the time scales associated with the development of bedforms in situ experiments on aeolian sand dunes have to combine logistics facilities with long term measurements By successfully meeting these challenges in China thanks to the local climate and the field expertise of Chinese scientists we will be able to obtain new experimental evidences for the formation of dunes and their alignment in multimodal wind regimes The current ANR project EXODUNES provides financial support for the two first missions of fall 2013 and spring 2014 and no PhD grant on that topic Considering the timescale of Earth s aeolian dune dynamics this fieldwork needs to be extended over several years up to 2017 at least and will provides a huge amount of data which will require the recruiting of a thesis student Hence the main objective of the Ph D thesis will be to continue the landscape scale experiment from fall 2014 to spring 2017 carrying out the field measurements and all the statistical data analysis From this we will have a unique set of data to investigate dune morphodynamics which is intended to be put in close relation to dune morphodynamics and climate on Earth and other planetary bodies were dunes have been observed Mars and Saturn largest moon Titan Of the three new thesis topics that are being proposed for this project this topic is the project s highest priority Planetary sciences Publication Time evolution of snow regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk 6 May 2015 14 39 K Baillié S Charnoz and E Pantin members of Interface Project From dust to stars publish their results in the newspaper Astronomy Astrophysics Their article is entitled Time evolution of snow regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk En savoir plus Publication New look at the origin and the growth mechanism of Titan dunes 6 October 2014 14 02 Titan the largest satellite of Saturn has a thick atmosphere dominated by nitrogen and carbon compounds This satellite has many similarities with Earth including a very active weather cucle essentially controlled by methane and many landscapes with extremely familar faces in particular huge fields of linea dunes around the equator Such dune are observed in many terrestrial deserts and even on Mars and are witnesses of the wind regimes and sedimentary environment that shaped them En savoir plus 07 10 2014 PUBLICATIONS Sept 2013 Sept 2014 1 PUBLICATIONS AND BOOKS 26 papers published or under review in total since september 2013 in international peer reviewed journal 2 papers in Science accepted 2 papers in Nature Geoscience under review Theme 1 1 Baillié K Charnoz S Time Evolution of a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk with a Free Geometry Toward a More Self consistent Picture 2014 Apj 786 id 35 2 Tajeddine R N Rambaux Lainey S charnoz and 3 co authors Constraints on Mimas interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements Accepted in SCIENCE publication in Nov 2014 3 S Charnoz J Aléon N Chaumard E Tailliffet Formation of CAI by coagulation and fragmentation Submitted to Icarus Moderate revisions required 4 Baillié K Charnoz S Pantin E Evolution of front regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk Submitted to A A 5 Charnoz S Michaut C Dynamical and thermodynamical evolution of the protoluar disk Submitted to Icarus 6 Chaussidon M Liu M C Early Solar System processes from nebular gas to the precursors of the Earth AGU Monograph Early Earth under revision 7 Furi E Chaussidon M Marty B accepté Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a CV3 CAI Geochim Cosmochim Acta 8 Luu T H Young E D Gounelle M Chaussidon M en révision A short time interval for condensation of high temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk Proc Nat Acad Sci 9 Mishra R Chaussidon M 2014 Fossil records of high level of 60 Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites Earth Planet Sci Lett 398 90 100 10 Moreira M Charnoz S The origin of the neon isotopes in chondrites and Earth Submitted to EPSL 11 Paul S Savage Heng Chen Igor S Puchtel Gregory Shofner J Siebert J Badro F Moynier Under review Nature Geoscience 12 Moynier F et Fegley B The Earth s building blocks AGU monograph accepted with revisions 13 Chen H Moynier F Humayun M Bishop MC Williams J Cosmogenic effects on Cu isotopes in IVB iron meteorites Implications for the Hf W chronometry Geochimica et cosmochimica acta Accepted with revisions Theme 2 1 Miljković K M A Wieczorek G S Collins M Laneuville G A Neumann H J Melosh S C Solomon R J Phillips D E Smith and M T Zuber 2013 Asymmetric distribution of lunar impact basins caused by variations in target properties Science 342 724 726 doi 10 1126 science 1243224 2 Laneuville M M A Wieczorek D Breuer and N Tosi 2013 Asymmetric thermal evolution of the Moon J Geophys Res Planets 118 1435 1452 doi 10 1002 jgre 20103 3 Thorey C and C Michaut 2014 A model for the dynamics of crater centered intrusion Application to lunar floor fractured craters J Geophys Res Planets 119 286 312 doi 10 1002 2013JE004467 4 Laneuville M M A Wieczorek D Breuer J Aubert G Morard T Ru ckriemen 2014 A long lived lunar dynamo powered by core crystallization Earth Planet Sci Lett 401 251 260 doi 10 1016 j epsl 2014 05 057 5 Miljkovic K M A Wieczorek G S Collins S C Solomon D E Smith M T Zuber Excavation of the lunar mantle by basin forming events on the Moon Earth Planet Sci Lett in revision 6 Price M C Ramkissoon N K McMahon S Miljkovic K Parnell J Wozniakiewicz P J Kearsley A T Blamey N J F Cole M J Burchell M J 2014 Limits on methane release

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i6-dust-planets (2015-10-10)
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  • Former Interface projects | UnivEarthS
    au PCCP The transient catastrophic Universe Interface projects Geoparticles Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/former-interface-projects (2015-10-10)
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  • I1 : Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems | UnivEarthS
    cratering in our Solar System Permanent personnel Sébastien Charnoz Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM Rings Disks and Planets Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 719 sebastien charnoz cea fr Pierre Olivier Lagage Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM CEA Saclay Bat 709 Gif sur Yvette pierre olivier lagage cea fr Philippe Lognonné Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 707 lognonne ipgp fr Chloé Michaut Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 717 michaut ipgp fr Manuel Moreira Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry IPGP 1 rue Jussieu Bureau 561 moreira ipgp fr Mark A Wieczorek Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 722 wieczor ipgp fr Post docs and Ph D students Katarina Miljković post doc Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 713 miljkovic ipgp fr Matthieu Laneuville Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 laneuville ipgp fr Clément Thorey Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 thorey ipgp fr Planetary sciences Tracking the Earliest Phase of Planetary Formation The first solids The laboratory AIM Astrophysique Interaction Multi échelle is involved in several infrared programs such as VLT VISIR and will have guaranteed time on the spectro imager and coronograph MIRI on the future James Webb Space Telescope JWST Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars 10 7 years will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation The spatial and size distributions of dust the first solids are affected by on going planet formation and from such observations key questions will be able to be addressed about the evolution of the disk properties and how the depend upon stellar age and metallicity Planets embedded in their disks will be directly imaged and their interactions will be studied directly Closer to home the former protoplanetary disk of our Solar System has left a wealth of fossil information buried in the solid materials that make up our planetary system Laboratory isotopic measurements with mass spectrometers and ion probes in meteorites comets and other planetary materials give invaluable chronological constraints on the formation of the first solids CAI Chondrules The use of short lived radioactive elements allows a very fine chronology of these objects e g 26 Al Chronology markers can also constrain the importance of the reprocessing of early planetary embryos in the formation of late stage and larger embryos How dust was processed during the first million years is unclear Solar wind and irradiation may have modified the chemistry and the isotopic signatures of the pre solar grains and the solids formed in situ Isotopic measurements oxygen rare gases short lived radiogenic isotopes may also characterize the different parent bodies from which the terrestrial planets were assembled and provide clues to the origin of their volatiles Coupling these results with numerical simulations of planetary formation will be seminal to better understanding the evolution of planetary systems The laboratory AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on 1 the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos including turbulent dynamics radiative effects and planet disk interactions Chemistry will be included into N body codes of dust transport We will interpret the JWST imaging data in term of 3D disk structures We will interpret isotopic abundances in meteorites to check if transport is dynamically possible from the different reservoirs comet region solar region extrasolar source disk photosphere to the terrestrial planet zone and if the Earth has accreted from local embryos or from bodies spread across the disk Tracking Exoplanets The detection and direct imaging of exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope will represent a breakthrough in understanding planetary formation Super earths will be detected during their transits providing the size and orbit of the planet as well as direct access to the exoplanet s atmosphere or surface through spectroscopic measurements The surface of these planets will be characterized and will yield strong constraints on their formation process Further from the star 10 AU giant gaseous exoplanets and the surround stellar disk are in the reach of direct imaging as well These observations will provide direct data on the interaction of young planets with their disk If the system is young 10 My this will constrain the migration process as well as the possibility for the planet to form satellites If the system is older 10 My the disk may be similar to our Kuiper belt and models of belt evolution can be tested and compared to our Solar System A large program of numerical simulation will be led principally in the form of N body codes to simulate the assembly of planets from embryos and to track basic chemical composition which is relevant for the mid and late stages of planet formation Interactions with the surrounding disk can be included in the form of test particle algorithms for the debris disk or in the form of an Eulerian gaseous disk In the latter case an effort will be focused on modelling properly radiative effects in order to go beyond the local isothermal disk model Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon The Earth Moon system is unique among the terrestrial planets and provides invaluable clues to the origin and early evolution of our Solar System Analyses of Lunar data not only gave rise to the model that the Earth and Moon formed together during an impact between the proto Earth and a large planetessimal but also

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i1-formation-and-early-evolution-planetary-systems (2015-10-10)
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