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  • Overview | UnivEarthS
    holes seem to be ubiquitous in the Universe they represent the final stage of a star are present in many binary systems but also at the centre of most galaxies such as our own And even though they are rather simple objects from the point of view of gravity their environment is very complex Indeed the understanding of how high energy phenomena recycle energy into their environment and the feedback to large distances of powerful explosions jets and the impact of their companion high energy particles are keys to understanding the emergence of new structures clouds stars galaxies in the Universe All require high precision observations and elaborated modeling We start with the Universe in its largest dimensions The question of the emergence of space popularly known as the big bang is obviously a central one and requires one to study the Universe at its earliest times i e the most distant Universe because of the finiteness of the speed of light The Universe has been transparent to light since about 380 000 years after the big bang This first light is in the present epoch observed in the form of a microwave background the so called cosmic microwave background CMB Investigating times close to the big bang the so called inflation period requires the identification of very tiny details on maps of fluctuations of the CMB those for which G Smoot received the Nobel Prize in 2006 and thus precision measurement methods Another promising approach is the detection of deformations of spacetime known as gravitational waves These waves could have formed immediately after the big bang and would provide the only direct test of the content of the Universe emerging from the big bang Since those early epochs the expansion of the Universe has been decelerating It was discovered in 1998 that the expansion has been accelerating again for the past 4 billion years This is attributed to some new form of energy called dark energy Identifying dark energy has been singled out by both the astrophysics and fundamental physics communities as the priority task of the coming decade It is obviously related to the question of the future of our Universe The research consists in locating the remaining witnesses of these early periods collecting rare field samples and measurements analyzing them with the most exquisite modern techniques of imagery isotope geochemistry mineralogy in extreme pressure and temperature conditions as is beginning to be carried out on cores from Australia and South Africa that date back to 2 7 billion years and more Because we need to go back even further in the past to the first billion years of Earth s history it requires pushing back the resolution limits of many current instruments and also improving our understanding of some basic physical chemical and even biological principles and producing when needed efficient numerical modeling of massive amounts of data But the Present and the Past are keys to one another and understanding the distant past of the Earth

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/overview?quicktabs_overview=0 (2015-10-10)
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  • UnivEarthS' LabEx | UnivEarthS
    high energy astrophysics AIM APC cosmology and fundamental physics APC The project is designed to set up a unique high level teaching and training platform in the sciences of the Universe to achieve efficient technology transfer between the partners as well as towards other institutes and industry and to develop novel outreach initiatives The UnivEarthS project revolves around the general theme of Evolution Catastrophes and Emergence how do natural systems of various scales form and evolve into self organized dynamic structures what are the catastrophic events that cause dramatic shifts in evolution when and how did new processes and mechanisms appear Such questions arise when dealing with the primordial Universe the organization of small to large scale structures in the Universe violent phenomena associated with stellar explosions and black holes the development of planetary systems the differentiation and dynamics of the proto Earth the origin and early growth of Life as well as the study of geological and astronomical catastrophes volcanic eruptions planetary quakes planetary collisions Variability and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of the Universe structure and evolution and catastrophic events impact the evolution of all natural objects regardless of their dimensions from galaxy clusters down to stars and planets Whilst the past decades have opened windows into the sky across the whole radiation spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays the next decades will open time windows into transient sources bursts and flares over a large range of time scales Large international sky survey instruments are being prepared and we need to harness new precision technologies and analysis methods to detect and examine variability in huge real time or near real time data flows and to identify transient sources UnivEarthS proposes to invest in algorithmic and analysis developments to actively participate to the international effort to prepare for this new time frontier Initiatives involving several institutes are proposed a large common computational center for massive data management and modelling New technology has led to a dramatic increase in the amount of data that can be collected We will develop the numerical tools and calculation codes that are required for our specific researches precision metrology strenghtening the links between fundamental physics in space and studies of Earth and Planetary processes studies of the formation and evolution of solar and exo planets and of the Moon Earth system in its early stages observational and numerical developments in the study of violent phenomena in the Universe UnivEarthS will support the Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics PCCP This Centre is a place for research education and exchange on the physics of the Universe The project has been established under the leadership of George F Smoot Nobel Prize in physics in 2006 recruited as a professor at the University Paris Diderot in February 2010 Noting the remarkable concentration of laboratories working in Paris at the highest international level in the field of cosmology George Smoot has decided to create this centre in order to develop synergies between these laboratories which include APC LUTh and

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/univearths-labex?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • Scientific areas | UnivEarthS
    only very recently that black holes have acquired the status of astrophysical objects and not just curiosities of the theory of gravitation singularities protected by a horizon whereas the big bang is a naked singularity Indeed black holes seem to be ubiquitous in the Universe they represent the final stage of a star are present in many binary systems but also at the centre of most galaxies such as our own And even though they are rather simple objects from the point of view of gravity their environment is very complex Indeed the understanding of how high energy phenomena recycle energy into their environment and the feedback to large distances of powerful explosions jets and the impact of their companion high energy particles are keys to understanding the emergence of new structures clouds stars galaxies in the Universe All require high precision observations and elaborated modeling We start with the Universe in its largest dimensions The question of the emergence of space popularly known as the big bang is obviously a central one and requires one to study the Universe at its earliest times i e the most distant Universe because of the finiteness of the speed of light The Universe has been transparent to light since about 380 000 years after the big bang This first light is in the present epoch observed in the form of a microwave background the so called cosmic microwave background CMB Investigating times close to the big bang the so called inflation period requires the identification of very tiny details on maps of fluctuations of the CMB those for which G Smoot received the Nobel Prize in 2006 and thus precision measurement methods Another promising approach is the detection of deformations of spacetime known as gravitational waves These waves could have formed immediately after the big bang and would provide the only direct test of the content of the Universe emerging from the big bang Since those early epochs the expansion of the Universe has been decelerating It was discovered in 1998 that the expansion has been accelerating again for the past 4 billion years This is attributed to some new form of energy called dark energy Identifying dark energy has been singled out by both the astrophysics and fundamental physics communities as the priority task of the coming decade It is obviously related to the question of the future of our Universe The research consists in locating the remaining witnesses of these early periods collecting rare field samples and measurements analyzing them with the most exquisite modern techniques of imagery isotope geochemistry mineralogy in extreme pressure and temperature conditions as is beginning to be carried out on cores from Australia and South Africa that date back to 2 7 billion years and more Because we need to go back even further in the past to the first billion years of Earth s history it requires pushing back the resolution limits of many current instruments and also improving our understanding of some basic

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/scientific-areas?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • Scientific areas | UnivEarthS
    It is obviously related to the question of the future of our Universe Violent phenomena in the Universe are connected to the presence of very compact objects neutron stars or black holes It is only very recently that black holes have acquired the status of astrophysical objects and not just curiosities of the theory of gravitation singularities protected by a horizon whereas the big bang is a naked singularity Indeed black holes seem to be ubiquitous in the Universe they represent the final stage of a star are present in many binary systems but also at the centre of most galaxies such as our own And even though they are rather simple objects from the point of view of gravity their environment is very complex Indeed the understanding of how high energy phenomena recycle energy into their environment and the feedback to large distances of powerful explosions jets and the impact of their companion high energy particles are keys to understanding the emergence of new structures clouds stars galaxies in the Universe All require high precision observations and elaborated modeling The formation of planets in particular the Earth and the Moon through the process of accretion and proto planetary impacts controls their chemical state and thus their present dynamics The understanding of the emergence of planets from the pristine solar disk relies on detailed observations of remote solar systems with different degrees of maturation in particular the observation of exoplanets and on high resolution isotopic measurements of the composition of chondrites the initial building blocks of planets This is where the world views and approaches of the astro and geo sciences meet The accretion of the Earth forming objects the Moon forming impact the nature and duration of a magma ocean the formation of the Earth s core the appearance of the Earth s magnetic field early mantle convection and the emergence of the first oceans atmosphere and continental fragments the effect of the late heavy bombardment the emergence of life the growth of the inner core the birth of plate tectonics are all key events in the history of the young Earth occurring in the first one or two billions of years which have left precious few traces that modern geosciences are increasingly able to uncover and unravel The early history of the Earth has not been a long quiet river flowing as the title of a famous French movie goes but it has been punctuated by catastrophic events separating periods when the rules of the game may have changed with the emergence of new media and structures after each revolution This new view of a non linear evolution with phase changes is in line with progress in non linear physics and chaos theory There were a before and an after with often very different characteristics regarding the appearance of many of the features recalled above The next research frontier consists in locating the remaining witnesses of these early periods collecting rare field samples and measurements analyzing them with

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/scientific-areas-0 (2015-10-10)
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  • Scientific areas | UnivEarthS
    is only very recently that black holes have acquired the status of astrophysical objects and not just curiosities of the theory of gravitation singularities protected by a horizon whereas the big bang is a naked singularity Indeed black holes seem to be ubiquitous in the Universe they represent the final stage of a star are present in many binary systems but also at the centre of most galaxies such as our own And even though they are rather simple objects from the point of view of gravity their environment is very complex Indeed the understanding of how high energy phenomena recycle energy into their environment and the feedback to large distances of powerful explosions jets and the impact of their companion high energy particles are keys to understanding the emergence of new structures clouds stars galaxies in the Universe All require high precision observations and elaborated modeling We start with the Universe in its largest dimensions The question of the emergence of space popularly known as the big bang is obviously a central one and requires one to study the Universe at its earliest times i e the most distant Universe because of the finiteness of the speed of light The Universe has been transparent to light since about 380 000 years after the big bang This first light is in the present epoch observed in the form of a microwave background the so called cosmic microwave background CMB Investigating times close to the big bang the so called inflation period requires the identification of very tiny details on maps of fluctuations of the CMB those for which G Smoot received the Nobel Prize in 2006 and thus precision measurement methods Another promising approach is the detection of deformations of spacetime known as gravitational waves These waves could have formed immediately after the big bang and would provide the only direct test of the content of the Universe emerging from the big bang Since those early epochs the expansion of the Universe has been decelerating It was discovered in 1998 that the expansion has been accelerating again for the past 4 billion years This is attributed to some new form of energy called dark energy Identifying dark energy has been singled out by both the astrophysics and fundamental physics communities as the priority task of the coming decade It is obviously related to the question of the future of our Universe The research consists in locating the remaining witnesses of these early periods collecting rare field samples and measurements analyzing them with the most exquisite modern techniques of imagery isotope geochemistry mineralogy in extreme pressure and temperature conditions as is beginning to be carried out on cores from Australia and South Africa that date back to 2 7 billion years and more Because we need to go back even further in the past to the first billion years of Earth s history it requires pushing back the resolution limits of many current instruments and also improving our understanding of some

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/scientific-areas?quicktabs_scientific_areas=0 (2015-10-10)
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  • Astrophysics of high energy | UnivEarthS
    physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter Search Post Doctoral Research Fellow IGOSat internship PhD position Effect of the North South dichotomy on the thermal structure and evolution of Mars Search this site September Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sign in Password forgotten Home OVERVIEW Scientific areas Astrophysics of high energy Astrophysics of high energy Violent phenomena in the Universe are connected to the presence of very compact objects neutron stars or black holes It is only very recently that black holes have acquired the status of astrophysical objects and not just curiosities of the theory of gravitation singularities protected by a horizon whereas the big bang is a naked singularity Indeed black holes seem

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/node/50?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • Cosmology and fundamental physics | UnivEarthS
    transient catastrophic Universe Interface projects Geoparticles Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter Search Post Doctoral Research Fellow IGOSat internship PhD position Effect of the North South dichotomy on the thermal structure and evolution of Mars Search this site September Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sign in Password forgotten Home OVERVIEW Scientific areas Cosmology and fundamental physics Cosmology and fundamental physics We start with the Universe in its largest dimensions The question of the emergence of space popularly known as the big bang is obviously a central one and requires one to study the Universe at its earliest times i e the most distant Universe because of the finiteness of the speed of light The Universe has been transparent to light since about 380 000 years after the big bang This first light is in the present epoch observed in the form of a microwave background the so called cosmic microwave background CMB Investigating times close to the big bang the so called inflation period requires the identification of very tiny details on maps of fluctuations of the CMB those for which G Smoot received the Nobel Prize in 2006 and thus precision measurement methods Another promising approach is the detection of deformations of spacetime known as gravitational waves These waves could have formed

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/node/51?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • Earth and environmental sciences | UnivEarthS
    Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter Search Post Doctoral Research Fellow IGOSat internship PhD position Effect of the North South dichotomy on the thermal structure and evolution of Mars Search this site September Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sign in Password forgotten Home OVERVIEW Scientific areas Earth and environmental sciences Earth and environmental sciences The research consists in locating the remaining witnesses of these early periods collecting rare field samples and measurements analyzing them with the most exquisite modern techniques of imagery isotope geochemistry mineralogy in extreme pressure and temperature conditions as is beginning to be carried out on cores from Australia and South Africa that date back to 2 7 billion years and more Because we need to go back even further in the past to the first billion years of Earth s history it requires pushing back the resolution limits of many current instruments and also improving our understanding of some basic physical chemical and even biological principles and producing when needed efficient numerical modeling of massive amounts of data But the Present and the Past are keys to one another and understanding the distant past of the Earth requires even better understanding of the processes which are still currently active on Earth This is for instance the case for active subduction of plates a generator of dangerous powerful earthquakes and volcanoes but also the key operator allowing the formation of granitic crust that is the precursors to continental fragments that generally remain

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/node/52?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
    Open archived version from archive