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  • Publication: New look at the origin and the growth mechanism of Titan dunes | UnivEarthS
    project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter Search Post Doctoral Research Fellow IGOSat internship PhD position Effect of the North South dichotomy on the thermal structure and evolution of Mars Search this site October Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Sign in Password forgotten Home Publication New look at the origin and the growth mechanism of Titan dunes 06 10 2014 Titan the largest satellite of Saturn has a thick atmosphere dominated by nitrogen and carbon compounds This satellite has many similarities with Earth including a very active weather cucle essentially controlled by methane and many landscapes with extremely familar faces in particular huge fields of linea dunes around the equator Such dune are observed in many terrestrial deserts and even on Mars and are witnesses of the wind regimes and sedimentary environment that shaped them These dune fields occupy 17 of Titan s surface and carry with them valuable information about the climate of the satellite By combining observations with data from the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn since July 2004 climate modeling and sediment transport theory a study conducted by researchers at the Space Campus of the University Paris Diderot offers a fresh look at mechanisms of growth and propagation of these giant dunes In particular it is shown that contrary to what was commonly believed the dunes are not formed on a bed of mobilized sediment but elongate by feeding from their own sediment in the direction of the prevailing wind also named resultant drift direction Thus the study shows that only powerful gusts

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/publication-new-look-origin-and-growth-mechanism-titan-dunes (2015-10-10)
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  • Former Interface projects | UnivEarthS
    au PCCP The transient catastrophic Universe Interface projects Geoparticles Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/former-interface-projects?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • I1 : Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems | UnivEarthS
    cratering in our Solar System Permanent personnel Sébastien Charnoz Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM Rings Disks and Planets Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 719 sebastien charnoz cea fr Pierre Olivier Lagage Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM CEA Saclay Bat 709 Gif sur Yvette pierre olivier lagage cea fr Philippe Lognonné Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 707 lognonne ipgp fr Chloé Michaut Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 717 michaut ipgp fr Manuel Moreira Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry IPGP 1 rue Jussieu Bureau 561 moreira ipgp fr Mark A Wieczorek Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 722 wieczor ipgp fr Post docs and Ph D students Katarina Miljković post doc Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 713 miljkovic ipgp fr Matthieu Laneuville Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 laneuville ipgp fr Clément Thorey Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 thorey ipgp fr Planetary sciences Tracking the Earliest Phase of Planetary Formation The first solids The laboratory AIM Astrophysique Interaction Multi échelle is involved in several infrared programs such as VLT VISIR and will have guaranteed time on the spectro imager and coronograph MIRI on the future James Webb Space Telescope JWST Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars 10 7 years will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation The spatial and size distributions of dust the first solids are affected by on going planet formation and from such observations key questions will be able to be addressed about the evolution of the disk properties and how the depend upon stellar age and metallicity Planets embedded in their disks will be directly imaged and their interactions will be studied directly Closer to home the former protoplanetary disk of our Solar System has left a wealth of fossil information buried in the solid materials that make up our planetary system Laboratory isotopic measurements with mass spectrometers and ion probes in meteorites comets and other planetary materials give invaluable chronological constraints on the formation of the first solids CAI Chondrules The use of short lived radioactive elements allows a very fine chronology of these objects e g 26 Al Chronology markers can also constrain the importance of the reprocessing of early planetary embryos in the formation of late stage and larger embryos How dust was processed during the first million years is unclear Solar wind and irradiation may have modified the chemistry and the isotopic signatures of the pre solar grains and the solids formed in situ Isotopic measurements oxygen rare gases short lived radiogenic isotopes may also characterize the different parent bodies from which the terrestrial planets were assembled and provide clues to the origin of their volatiles Coupling these results with numerical simulations of planetary formation will be seminal to better understanding the evolution of planetary systems The laboratory AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on 1 the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos including turbulent dynamics radiative effects and planet disk interactions Chemistry will be included into N body codes of dust transport We will interpret the JWST imaging data in term of 3D disk structures We will interpret isotopic abundances in meteorites to check if transport is dynamically possible from the different reservoirs comet region solar region extrasolar source disk photosphere to the terrestrial planet zone and if the Earth has accreted from local embryos or from bodies spread across the disk Tracking Exoplanets The detection and direct imaging of exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope will represent a breakthrough in understanding planetary formation Super earths will be detected during their transits providing the size and orbit of the planet as well as direct access to the exoplanet s atmosphere or surface through spectroscopic measurements The surface of these planets will be characterized and will yield strong constraints on their formation process Further from the star 10 AU giant gaseous exoplanets and the surround stellar disk are in the reach of direct imaging as well These observations will provide direct data on the interaction of young planets with their disk If the system is young 10 My this will constrain the migration process as well as the possibility for the planet to form satellites If the system is older 10 My the disk may be similar to our Kuiper belt and models of belt evolution can be tested and compared to our Solar System A large program of numerical simulation will be led principally in the form of N body codes to simulate the assembly of planets from embryos and to track basic chemical composition which is relevant for the mid and late stages of planet formation Interactions with the surrounding disk can be included in the form of test particle algorithms for the debris disk or in the form of an Eulerian gaseous disk In the latter case an effort will be focused on modelling properly radiative effects in order to go beyond the local isothermal disk model Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon The Earth Moon system is unique among the terrestrial planets and provides invaluable clues to the origin and early evolution of our Solar System Analyses of Lunar data not only gave rise to the model that the Earth and Moon formed together during an impact between the proto Earth and a large planetessimal but also

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i1-formation-and-early-evolution-planetary-systems?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-09 (2015-10-10)
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  • I1 : Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems | UnivEarthS
    cratering in our Solar System Permanent personnel Sébastien Charnoz Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM Rings Disks and Planets Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 719 sebastien charnoz cea fr Pierre Olivier Lagage Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM CEA Saclay Bat 709 Gif sur Yvette pierre olivier lagage cea fr Philippe Lognonné Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 707 lognonne ipgp fr Chloé Michaut Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 717 michaut ipgp fr Manuel Moreira Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry IPGP 1 rue Jussieu Bureau 561 moreira ipgp fr Mark A Wieczorek Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 722 wieczor ipgp fr Post docs and Ph D students Katarina Miljković post doc Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 713 miljkovic ipgp fr Matthieu Laneuville Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 laneuville ipgp fr Clément Thorey Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 thorey ipgp fr Planetary sciences Tracking the Earliest Phase of Planetary Formation The first solids The laboratory AIM Astrophysique Interaction Multi échelle is involved in several infrared programs such as VLT VISIR and will have guaranteed time on the spectro imager and coronograph MIRI on the future James Webb Space Telescope JWST Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars 10 7 years will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation The spatial and size distributions of dust the first solids are affected by on going planet formation and from such observations key questions will be able to be addressed about the evolution of the disk properties and how the depend upon stellar age and metallicity Planets embedded in their disks will be directly imaged and their interactions will be studied directly Closer to home the former protoplanetary disk of our Solar System has left a wealth of fossil information buried in the solid materials that make up our planetary system Laboratory isotopic measurements with mass spectrometers and ion probes in meteorites comets and other planetary materials give invaluable chronological constraints on the formation of the first solids CAI Chondrules The use of short lived radioactive elements allows a very fine chronology of these objects e g 26 Al Chronology markers can also constrain the importance of the reprocessing of early planetary embryos in the formation of late stage and larger embryos How dust was processed during the first million years is unclear Solar wind and irradiation may have modified the chemistry and the isotopic signatures of the pre solar grains and the solids formed in situ Isotopic measurements oxygen rare gases short lived radiogenic isotopes may also characterize the different parent bodies from which the terrestrial planets were assembled and provide clues to the origin of their volatiles Coupling these results with numerical simulations of planetary formation will be seminal to better understanding the evolution of planetary systems The laboratory AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on 1 the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos including turbulent dynamics radiative effects and planet disk interactions Chemistry will be included into N body codes of dust transport We will interpret the JWST imaging data in term of 3D disk structures We will interpret isotopic abundances in meteorites to check if transport is dynamically possible from the different reservoirs comet region solar region extrasolar source disk photosphere to the terrestrial planet zone and if the Earth has accreted from local embryos or from bodies spread across the disk Tracking Exoplanets The detection and direct imaging of exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope will represent a breakthrough in understanding planetary formation Super earths will be detected during their transits providing the size and orbit of the planet as well as direct access to the exoplanet s atmosphere or surface through spectroscopic measurements The surface of these planets will be characterized and will yield strong constraints on their formation process Further from the star 10 AU giant gaseous exoplanets and the surround stellar disk are in the reach of direct imaging as well These observations will provide direct data on the interaction of young planets with their disk If the system is young 10 My this will constrain the migration process as well as the possibility for the planet to form satellites If the system is older 10 My the disk may be similar to our Kuiper belt and models of belt evolution can be tested and compared to our Solar System A large program of numerical simulation will be led principally in the form of N body codes to simulate the assembly of planets from embryos and to track basic chemical composition which is relevant for the mid and late stages of planet formation Interactions with the surrounding disk can be included in the form of test particle algorithms for the debris disk or in the form of an Eulerian gaseous disk In the latter case an effort will be focused on modelling properly radiative effects in order to go beyond the local isothermal disk model Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon The Earth Moon system is unique among the terrestrial planets and provides invaluable clues to the origin and early evolution of our Solar System Analyses of Lunar data not only gave rise to the model that the Earth and Moon formed together during an impact between the proto Earth and a large planetessimal but also

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i1-formation-and-early-evolution-planetary-systems?mini=node%2F333%2F2015-11 (2015-10-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • I1 : Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems | UnivEarthS
    cratering in our Solar System Permanent personnel Sébastien Charnoz Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM Rings Disks and Planets Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 719 sebastien charnoz cea fr Pierre Olivier Lagage Astrophysique Interactions Mulit échelles AIM CEA Saclay Bat 709 Gif sur Yvette pierre olivier lagage cea fr Philippe Lognonné Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 707 lognonne ipgp fr Chloé Michaut Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 717 michaut ipgp fr Manuel Moreira Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry IPGP 1 rue Jussieu Bureau 561 moreira ipgp fr Mark A Wieczorek Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris IPGP Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A Bureau 722 wieczor ipgp fr Post docs and Ph D students Katarina Miljković post doc Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 713 miljkovic ipgp fr Matthieu Laneuville Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 laneuville ipgp fr Clément Thorey Ph D student Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Planetary and Space Sciences Univ Paris Diderot 35 rue Hélène Brion Lamarck A bureau 724 thorey ipgp fr Planetary sciences Tracking the Earliest Phase of Planetary Formation The first solids The laboratory AIM Astrophysique Interaction Multi échelle is involved in several infrared programs such as VLT VISIR and will have guaranteed time on the spectro imager and coronograph MIRI on the future James Webb Space Telescope JWST Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars 10 7 years will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation The spatial and size distributions of dust the first solids are affected by on going planet formation and from such observations key questions will be able to be addressed about the evolution of the disk properties and how the depend upon stellar age and metallicity Planets embedded in their disks will be directly imaged and their interactions will be studied directly Closer to home the former protoplanetary disk of our Solar System has left a wealth of fossil information buried in the solid materials that make up our planetary system Laboratory isotopic measurements with mass spectrometers and ion probes in meteorites comets and other planetary materials give invaluable chronological constraints on the formation of the first solids CAI Chondrules The use of short lived radioactive elements allows a very fine chronology of these objects e g 26 Al Chronology markers can also constrain the importance of the reprocessing of early planetary embryos in the formation of late stage and larger embryos How dust was processed during the first million years is unclear Solar wind and irradiation may have modified the chemistry and the isotopic signatures of the pre solar grains and the solids formed in situ Isotopic measurements oxygen rare gases short lived radiogenic isotopes may also characterize the different parent bodies from which the terrestrial planets were assembled and provide clues to the origin of their volatiles Coupling these results with numerical simulations of planetary formation will be seminal to better understanding the evolution of planetary systems The laboratory AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on 1 the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos including turbulent dynamics radiative effects and planet disk interactions Chemistry will be included into N body codes of dust transport We will interpret the JWST imaging data in term of 3D disk structures We will interpret isotopic abundances in meteorites to check if transport is dynamically possible from the different reservoirs comet region solar region extrasolar source disk photosphere to the terrestrial planet zone and if the Earth has accreted from local embryos or from bodies spread across the disk Tracking Exoplanets The detection and direct imaging of exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope will represent a breakthrough in understanding planetary formation Super earths will be detected during their transits providing the size and orbit of the planet as well as direct access to the exoplanet s atmosphere or surface through spectroscopic measurements The surface of these planets will be characterized and will yield strong constraints on their formation process Further from the star 10 AU giant gaseous exoplanets and the surround stellar disk are in the reach of direct imaging as well These observations will provide direct data on the interaction of young planets with their disk If the system is young 10 My this will constrain the migration process as well as the possibility for the planet to form satellites If the system is older 10 My the disk may be similar to our Kuiper belt and models of belt evolution can be tested and compared to our Solar System A large program of numerical simulation will be led principally in the form of N body codes to simulate the assembly of planets from embryos and to track basic chemical composition which is relevant for the mid and late stages of planet formation Interactions with the surrounding disk can be included in the form of test particle algorithms for the debris disk or in the form of an Eulerian gaseous disk In the latter case an effort will be focused on modelling properly radiative effects in order to go beyond the local isothermal disk model Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon The Earth Moon system is unique among the terrestrial planets and provides invaluable clues to the origin and early evolution of our Solar System Analyses of Lunar data not only gave rise to the model that the Earth and Moon formed together during an impact between the proto Earth and a large planetessimal but also

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/i1-formation-and-early-evolution-planetary-systems?quicktabs_menu_i1_en=0 (2015-10-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Sébastien Charnoz will be the guest of the radio talk "La tête au carré" on France Inter on April 10th at 2 pm. | UnivEarthS
    dunes and climate on Titan Impact of black holes on their environment Frontier projects Earth as a living planet From the Big Bang to the future Universe Support au PCCP The transient catastrophic Universe Interface projects Geoparticles Fundamental physics and Geophysics in space From dust to planets Former Interface projects Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems The youth of cosmic rays and their emergence in the interstellar clouds Gamma ray instrumentation development Young team project Experimental geophysics Valorization project Data distribution visualisation and cloud computing PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL Nanosatellite student project IGOsat UnivEarthS JOB OPPORTUNITY Experimental Dark Matter Search Post Doctoral Research Fellow IGOSat internship PhD position Effect of the North South dichotomy on the thermal structure and evolution of Mars Search this site October Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Sign in Password forgotten Home Sébastien Charnoz will be the guest of the radio talk La tête au carré on France Inter on April 10th at 2 pm 08 04 2014 Sébastien Charnoz will speak in the

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/sebastien-charnoz-will-be-guest-radio-talk-la-tete-au-carre-france-inter-april-10th-2-pm (2015-10-10)
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  • NASA's GRAIL Mission Puts a New Face on the Moon | UnivEarthS
    impact basins that were created by asteroid impacts about four billion years ago GRAIL data indicate that both the near side and the far side of the Moon were bombarded by similarly large impactors but they reacted to them much differently Global map of crustal thickness of the Moon derived from gravity data obtained by NASA s GRAIL spacecraft The lunar near side is represented on the left hemisphere and the far side is represented in the right hemisphere In the left hemisphere outlined in white is the Procellarum KREEP Terrane a large province on the near side of the Moon that contains high abundances of potassium rare earth elements and phosphorus Excluding the Aitken basin at the south pole the gray circle on the lower half of the far side hemisphere there are 12 impact basins with crustal thinning that have diameters greater than 200 kilometers on each hemisphere Those are marked with black circles The image is presented in two hemispherical Lambert azimuthal equal area projections centered over the near side left and far side right hemispheres Image credit NASA JPL Caltech S Miljkovic Understanding lunar impact basins has been hampered by the simple fact that there is a lack of consensus on their size Most of the largest impact basins on the near side of the Moon the moon s face have been filled with lava flows which hide important clues about the shape of the land that could be used for determining their dimensions The GRAIL mission measured the internal structure of the Moon in unprecedented detail for nine months in 2012 With the data GRAIL scientists have redefined the sizes of massive impact basins on the Moon Maps of crustal thickness generated by GRAIL revealed more large impact basins on the near side hemisphere of the Moon than on the far side How could this be if both hemispheres were as widely believed on the receiving end of the same number of impacts Scientists have long known that the temperatures of the near side hemisphere of the Moon were higher than those on the far side the abundances of the heat producing elements uranium and thorium are higher on the near side than the far side and as a consequence the vast majority of volcanic eruptions occurred on the Moon s near side hemisphere Impact simulations indicate that impacts into a hot thin crust representative of the early Moon s near side hemisphere would have produced basins with as much as twice the diameter as similar impacts into cooler crust which is indicative of early conditions on the moon s far side hemisphere notes lead author Katarina Miljkovic of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris The new GRAIL research is also helping redefine the concept of the late heavy bombardment a proposed spike in the rate of crater creation by impacts about 4 billion years ago The late heavy bombardment is based largely on the ages of large near side impact basins that

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/nasas-grail-mission-puts-new-face-moon (2015-10-10)
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  • Planetary rings are at the origin of Solar System satellites | UnivEarthS
    for understanding and explaining in a universal manner the formation of planetary systems These results were published in the November 30 2012 issue Science WATCH THE ANIMATION Moons being born from rings Planetary rings are at the origin of Solar System satellites The planetary systems encircling the giant planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune are fundamentally different from those surrounding the terrestrial planets such as the Earth and Pluto Whereas the giant planets are surrounded by both rings and a myriad of natural satellites the terrestrial planets possess only a few moons or even a single unique moon and no rings Up until the present two models were commonly used to explain the presence of regular satellites in our Solar System For the case of the terrestrial planets it was suggested that a collision with a large body was at the origin of the formation of their satellites For the case of the giant planets it was suggested that the satellites formed from a gas disk surrounding the planet However these models could not explain the specific distribtion and chemical composition of the satellites in orbit about the giant planets Another theory was necessary In 2010 and 2011 as a result of numerical simulations and data from the Cassini mission a French research group developed a new model that described the formation of the moons of Saturn 3 These researchers discovered that the rings of Saturn which are very thin disks of small blocks of ice gave rise to the formation of icy satellites Over time the rings spread outward and when they reached a specific distance called the Roche limit the material near the edges coallesced forming small bodies that detached from the rings and moved outward The rings gave birth to the satellites in orbit about the planet In this new study two researches Aurélien Crida of the University Nice Sophia Antipolis and of the Observatoire de la Côte d Azur and Sébastien Charnoz of the Universiy Paris Diderot and CEA wanted to test this new model to see if it could be generalized to other planets Their calculations illuminated several points This model of forming satellites from planetary disks explains why the largest satellites are found further from the planet than smaller satellites In addition the model predicts the presence of an accumulation of satellites near the Roche limit the place where they are born just exterieur to the disk This distribution is in perfect agreement with the satellites of Saturn The same model can equally be applied to the giant planets Uranus and Neptune which are organized with the same architecture This suggests that these planets once possessed in the past rings that were as massive as those of Saturn but that they were lost by giving birth to their presently observed satellites Finally this model can also explain the formation of the satellites surrounding the terrestrial planets According to calculations carried out by these researchers in certain cases a single satellite could form from a

    Original URL path: http://www.univearths.fr/en/planetary-rings-are-origin-solar-system-satellites (2015-10-10)
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